That is the story of younger immigrants from the small villages of Southern Rhodes (Rhodes Island, Greece) who got here to work within the sugar-cane and cotton fields of Biloela, Queensland, Australia. These early immigrants have been overwhelmed by homesickness for his or her native villages, the households they left behind and their church. Nonetheless, they took the chance to raised their lives by working within the harsh, rural atmosphere of Queensland’s cotton and sugar-cane fields of Biloela.
By 1934, the Callide Valley had 40,000 acres of cotton planted and a butter manufacturing unit opened in 1936.
In March 1934, The Courier-Mail reported: “Among the many cotton growers of the Biloela district are a former normal of the Ural Cossacks who fought within the Nice Warfare (WWI) and a Russian Orthodox priest.”
A Greek Orthodox Archbishop, Timotheos Evangelinidis (1880 – 1949) the Metropolis of Australia and New Zealand from 1931 to 1947, visited Biloela from time-to-time to baptize youngsters, give communion to the Orthodox trustworthy and to evangelise the Divine Liturgy.
By the early post-World Warfare II years, Biloela’s inhabitants was about 1000 folks, making it the biggest city within the Banana Shire.
After having acquired appreciable financial savings many of those early immigrants began city companies similar to cafes and eating places.
Phillip Hagi-Diakou was born within the seaside village of Gennadi, Rhodes Island, Greece. In 1936, on the age of fourteen, he stated goodbye to his mom, his sister and village and travelled together with his father on the Italian ship, Romolo sure for Queensland, Australia to hunt their fortune.
Phillip labored alongside his father within the cotton and sugar-cane fields of Biloela and had to deal with the recent and humid circumstances in addition to dingoes and snakes.
He was decided to succeed nevertheless via onerous work and he set about studying the English language by learning a Greek-English dictionary.
He was nineteen when World Warfare II started so he enlisted within the Australian Military and was despatched to Darwin the place he served as a cook dinner. It was to be the start of a life-long profession within the kitchen.
When the conflict ended, he moved to Adelaide, South Australia and purchased the Gouger Cafe – the Cafe that modified his life.
The close-knit, hard-working and devoted Diakou household made their Gouger Cafe an icon of Adelaide’s seafood eating places headed by Phillip and his spouse Anastasia within the kitchen and their three youngsters, Maria, Steve and Invoice. The Gouger Cafe was a pioneer in seafood eating in Adelaide and Gouger Road was to change into the hub, boasting the cream of South Australia’s seafood eating places.
The Stiliano Household
Stylianos (Steve) Stiliano (nickname Matsi) stated goodbye to his mom and his little hilltop village of Mesanagros, Rhodes Island, Greece within the mid-Thirties and traveled together with his father and brother’s Yianni and Marko to work within the sugar cane and cotton fields of Rockhampton and Monto in Queensland, Australia.
In 1944 Steve met and married his spouse Erini in Biloela who had additionally migrated together with her household from Lahania, Rhodes Island, Greece.
They’d 5 youngsters – the twins, George and Anna, Philip and Gary who have been born in Biloela and Stella who was born in Adelaide in 1957.
Combined Farming – Cotton and Livestock
The Stiliano household had a mixed-farming enterprise on the outskirts of Biloela which built-in the cultivation of crops (cotton was the primary money crop) in addition to the elevating of livestock (primarily dairy) for meat and milk.
Cotton seeds have been planted in spring and the crop needed to be harvested earlier than the climate might injury or fully spoil its high quality and cut back yield.
Their cows needed to give delivery to a calf earlier than they may produce milk.
A few of their calves have been reared for veal and about three quarters of the heifers turned replacements for his or her grownup milk-producing cows.
The lengthy working hours result in tiredness and fatigue. And the household have been uncovered to quite a few life-threatening security and environmental hazards which included snakes, warmth publicity, falls, accidents and pesticides.
Cafe in Monto
The Stiliano household tilled, labored and endured within the cotton fields to earn sufficient cash to determine a restaurant in Monto about 96.2km from Biloela providing fast service, lengthy opening hours, and attractive meals seven days per week.
Their cafe supplied the normal English-style steak and eggs, a blended grill, chops and sausages, fish and chips in addition to the American hamburger, ice cream, sundaes, milkshakes and sodas might be bought as sit-down meals or take-away.
Each Tuesday was to change into a preferred social past-time at their cafe by farmers from the encompassing areas who took time without work from their every day chores on their farms to get pleasure from a scrumptious cafe-style meal with household or mates.
Nick Frossinakis alongside together with his father Manoli and brothers Philip and Tom from the small, southern Rhodes village of Lahania, Rhodes Island, Greece, left the uncertainty and financial instability of Submit-Warfare Greece in 1949 within the hope of achieving a extra steady life in Australia.
They migrated to Biloela the place they labored and endured within the cotton fields to earn sufficient cash to purchase their very own small farm.
Nick’s sister Eleni (Helen) stayed behind in Lahania, Rhodes Island for about three years, then traveled to Australia with one other feminine immigrant from Lahania to reunite together with her household in Australia.
Horse-drawn ploughs have been used for the cultivation of soil on the farms in these days to organize for sowing seed or planting to loosen or flip the soil.
They lived in homes manufactured from iron sheets atop onerous grime flooring and sweltered via tropical lengthy, scorching summers.
Their houses had no energy so, kerosene lamps with a wick for burning was used for lighting.
Holding clear and utilizing the bathroom wasn’t as simple in these early days as it’s right this moment.
The toilet and bathroom was a stark distinction to the suites with which we’re acquainted right this moment.
Be it freezing chilly or swelteringly scorching, many immigrants needed to make do with a conveyable steel tub to wash themselves and wherever they may discover privateness outdoor was their bathroom.
And, flax canvas water-bags have been a necessity in these days as a result of the provision of fresh, cool ingesting water in distant rural areas was important for survival. All of the farmers needed to depend on a whole lot of sunshine, heat circumstances and 4-to-5 months of frost-free temperatures to supply the fluffy white cotton.
Later, the household acquired about 120 dairy cows which they milked each morning then despatched it to the manufacturing unit in order that dairy merchandise similar to ingesting milk, cream, butter, yoghurt and cheese have been produced for human consumption.
Christos and Zaharoula Arnas
Christos Arnas was from the village of Katavia and Zaharoula Diakomihalis got here from the village of Lahania, Rhodes Island.
Throughout the late Thirties each, determined to depart the island of their delivery seeking a extra peaceable life in Australia, carrying with them the virtues of rural life – of farms and villages that work the old style approach.
Christos immigrated to Biloela, Queensland, Australia in 1936.
Zaharoula was dropped at Australia by her father, Phillip Diakomihalis in 1937.
They met and have been married in Biloela in 1937 and collectively, they purchased a farm within the Callide rural space on the outskirts of Biloela the place they grew cotton and raised livestock.
Their youngsters Irene was born in 1938, Phillip, was born in 1943 and Mary in 1944.
Each morning, earlier than going to high school, Irene, the eldest daughter would feed 32 calves after which, after college would feed the pigs.
When the Arnas household went to do their procuring within the city of Biloela they traveled in an 1800s type, horse and buggy (an old style reminder of a less complicated, extra slow-paced period).
Combined-Farming – Cotton and Livestock
The Arnas household mixed-farming enterprise built-in the cultivation of crops (cotton was the primary money crop) in addition to the elevating of livestock.
It reconnected them to the normal, self-sufficient rural, life-style they have been accustomed to again of their homeland of Southern Rhodes.
Milk, meat, cotton, cereal, greens and fruit have been all produced on their farm.
They labored beneath the warmth of the solar and within the rain to look at over their crops and livestock seven days per week, silently and uncomplaining.
Within the cotton fields the household toiled and endured to tug the white, fluffy lint from the boll whereas making an attempt to not lower their fingers on the sharp ends they usually needed to stoop to choose the cotton as a result of the common cotton plant is lower than three ft excessive.
The cows wanted grass, hay and grain to feed them and ample pasture to graze, whereas new child calves required nursing each three to 4 hours or a mean of seven to 10 occasions every day and eat 1 to 2 pints of milk throughout every nursing.
Their pastured pigs introduced different challenges as a result of poor vitamin will sluggish a pig’s progress and influence on the standard of the meat in addition to and the pig’s welfare.
The Arnas household fed their pigs a diversified eating regimen similar to corn, barley, soybean meal, bread, greens, fruit and pig pellets to remain wholesome.
Banana peels additionally made good feed for pigs due to their excessive power content material.
Every pig wanted to eat a mean of 6 to eight kilos of feed per day and have been free to roam on the Arnas farm, within the solar and recent air.
The Callide Major College was a one-room schoolhouse constructed upon stilts with a single trainer who taught the educational fundamentals to a number of grade ranges of major (elementary-age) girls and boys from the encompassing rural areas of Bilolela.
Nick and his brother’s Tom and Philip have been the primary Greek immigrants to attend the Callide Major College. Nick would seat his brother Tom on the crossbar of his bike to trip the 3km on a gravel street to the varsity every day. Irene Diakos would additionally trip her bike to high school.
Anna and George Stiliano have been younger farm youngsters who have been taking their first have a look at a schoolroom with rows of desks and a big trainer’s desk on the entrance.
That stroll from their residence to this unusual new world was so completely different from their outdated acquainted farm residence, pastures and fields.